Commit 40c5b6b1 authored by Tim Zallmann's avatar Tim Zallmann
Browse files

Merge branch '44427-state-management-with-vuex' into 'master'

Resolve "Vuex actions - How to achieve a better state management"

Closes #44427

See merge request gitlab-org/gitlab-ce!17929
......@@ -45,6 +45,9 @@ Common JavaScript design patterns in GitLab's codebase.
## [Vue.js Best Practices](vue.md)
Vue specific design patterns and practices.
## [Vuex](vuex.md)
Vuex specific design patterns and practices.
## [Axios](axios.md)
Axios specific practices and gotchas.
......
# Vue
For more complex frontend features, we recommend using Vue.js. It shares
some ideas with React.js as well as Angular.
To get started with Vue, read through [their documentation][vue-docs].
## When to use Vue.js
We recommend using Vue for more complex features. Here are some guidelines for when to use Vue.js:
- If you are starting a new feature or refactoring an old one that highly interacts with the DOM;
- For real time data updates;
- If you are creating a component that will be reused elsewhere;
## When not to use Vue.js
We don't want to refactor all GitLab frontend code into Vue.js, here are some guidelines for
when not to use Vue.js:
- Adding or changing static information;
- Features that highly depend on jQuery will be hard to work with Vue.js;
- Features without reactive data;
As always, the Frontend Architectural Experts are available to help with any Vue or JavaScript questions.
## Vue architecture
All new features built with Vue.js must follow a [Flux architecture][flux].
......@@ -57,15 +35,15 @@ new_feature
│ └── ...
├── stores
│ └── new_feature_store.js
├── services
├── services # only when not using vuex
│ └── new_feature_service.js
├── new_feature_bundle.js
├── index.js
```
_For consistency purposes, we recommend you to follow the same structure._
Let's look into each of them:
### A `*_bundle.js` file
### A `index.js` file
This is the index file of your new feature. This is where the root Vue instance
of the new feature should be.
......@@ -144,30 +122,30 @@ in one table would not be a good use of this pattern.
You can read more about components in Vue.js site, [Component System][component-system]
#### Components Gotchas
1. Using SVGs in components: To use an SVG in a template we need to make it a property we can access through the component.
A `prop` and a property returned by the `data` functions require `vue` to set a `getter` and a `setter` for each of them.
The SVG should be a computed property in order to improve performance, note that computed properties are cached based on their dependencies.
```javascript
// bad
import svg from 'svg.svg';
data() {
return {
myIcon: svg,
};
};
// good
import svg from 'svg.svg';
computed: {
myIcon() {
return svg;
}
}
```
1. Using SVGs icons in components: To use an SVG icon in a template use the `icon.vue`
1. Using SVGs illustrations in components: To use an SVG illustrations in a template provide the path as a prop and display it through a standard img tag.
```javascript
<script>
export default {
props: {
svgIllustrationPath: {
type: String,
required: true,
},
},
};
<script>
<template>
<img :src="svgIllustrationPath" />
</template>
```
### A folder for the Store
#### Vuex
Check this [page](vuex.md) for more details.
#### Flux like state management
The Store is a class that allows us to manage the state in a single
source of truth. It is not aware of the service or the components.
......@@ -176,6 +154,8 @@ itself, please read this guide: [State Management][state-management]
### A folder for the Service
**If you are using Vuex you won't need this step**
The Service is a class used only to communicate with the server.
It does not store or manipulate any data. It is not aware of the store or the components.
We use [axios][axios] to communicate with the server.
......@@ -273,6 +253,9 @@ import Store from 'store';
import Service from 'service';
import TodoComponent from 'todoComponent';
export default {
components: {
todo: TodoComponent,
},
/**
* Although most data belongs in the store, each component it's own state.
* We want to show a loading spinner while we are fetching the todos, this state belong
......@@ -291,10 +274,6 @@ export default {
};
},
components: {
todo: TodoComponent,
},
created() {
this.service = new Service('todos');
......@@ -476,201 +455,6 @@ need to test the rendered output. [Vue][vue-test] guide's to unit test show us e
Refer to [mock axios](axios.md#mock-axios-response-on-tests)
## Vuex
To manage the state of an application you may use [Vuex][vuex-docs].
_Note:_ All of the below is explained in more detail in the official [Vuex documentation][vuex-docs].
### Separation of concerns
Vuex is composed of State, Getters, Mutations, Actions and Modules.
When a user clicks on an action, we need to `dispatch` it. This action will `commit` a mutation that will change the state.
_Note:_ The action itself will not update the state, only a mutation should update the state.
#### File structure
When using Vuex at GitLab, separate this concerns into different files to improve readability. If you can, separate the Mutation Types as well:
```
└── store
├── index.js # where we assemble modules and export the store
├── actions.js # actions
├── mutations.js # mutations
├── getters.js # getters
└── mutation_types.js # mutation types
```
The following examples show an application that lists and adds users to the state.
##### `index.js`
This is the entry point for our store. You can use the following as a guide:
```javascript
import Vue from 'vue';
import Vuex from 'vuex';
import * as actions from './actions';
import * as getters from './getters';
import mutations from './mutations';
Vue.use(Vuex);
export default new Vuex.Store({
actions,
getters,
mutations,
state: {
users: [],
},
});
```
_Note:_ If the state of the application is too complex, an individual file for the state may be better.
##### `actions.js`
An action commits a mutation. In this file, we will write the actions that will commit the respective mutation:
```javascript
import * as types from './mutation_types';
export const addUser = ({ commit }, user) => {
commit(types.ADD_USER, user);
};
```
To dispatch an action from a component, use the `mapActions` helper:
```javascript
import { mapActions } from 'vuex';
{
methods: {
...mapActions([
'addUser',
]),
onClickUser(user) {
this.addUser(user);
},
},
};
```
##### `getters.js`
Sometimes we may need to get derived state based on store state, like filtering for a specific prop. This can be done through the `getters`:
```javascript
// get all the users with pets
export getUsersWithPets = (state, getters) => {
return state.users.filter(user => user.pet !== undefined);
};
```
To access a getter from a component, use the `mapGetters` helper:
```javascript
import { mapGetters } from 'vuex';
{
computed: {
...mapGetters([
'getUsersWithPets',
]),
},
};
```
##### `mutations.js`
The only way to actually change state in a Vuex store is by committing a mutation.
```javascript
import * as types from './mutation_types';
export default {
[types.ADD_USER](state, user) {
state.users.push(user);
},
};
```
##### `mutations_types.js`
From [vuex mutations docs][vuex-mutations]:
> It is a commonly seen pattern to use constants for mutation types in various Flux implementations. This allows the code to take advantage of tooling like linters, and putting all constants in a single file allows your collaborators to get an at-a-glance view of what mutations are possible in the entire application.
```javascript
export const ADD_USER = 'ADD_USER';
```
### How to include the store in your application
The store should be included in the main component of your application:
```javascript
// app.vue
import store from 'store'; // it will include the index.js file
export default {
name: 'application',
store,
...
};
```
### Vuex Gotchas
1. Avoid calling a mutation directly. Always use an action to commit a mutation. Doing so will keep consistency through out the application. From Vuex docs:
> why don't we just call store.commit('action') directly? Well, remember that mutations must be synchronous? Actions aren't. We can perform asynchronous operations inside an action.
```javascript
// component.vue
// bad
created() {
this.$store.commit('mutation');
}
// good
created() {
this.$store.dispatch('action');
}
```
1. When possible, use mutation types instead of hardcoding strings. It will be less error prone.
1. The State will be accessible in all components descending from the use where the store is instantiated.
### Testing Vuex
#### Testing Vuex concerns
Refer to [vuex docs][vuex-testing] regarding testing Actions, Getters and Mutations.
#### Testing components that need a store
Smaller components might use `store` properties to access the data.
In order to write unit tests for those components, we need to include the store and provide the correct state:
```javascript
//component_spec.js
import Vue from 'vue';
import store from './store';
import component from './component.vue'
describe('component', () => {
let vm;
let Component;
beforeEach(() => {
Component = Vue.extend(issueActions);
});
afterEach(() => {
vm.$destroy();
});
it('should show a user', () => {
const user = {
name: 'Foo',
age: '30',
};
// populate the store
store.dispatch('addUser', user);
vm = new Component({
store,
propsData: props,
}).$mount();
});
});
```
[vue-docs]: http://vuejs.org/guide/index.html
[issue-boards]: https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/tree/master/app/assets/javascripts/boards
[environments-table]: https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/tree/master/app/assets/javascripts/environments
......@@ -681,9 +465,5 @@ describe('component', () => {
[vue-test]: https://vuejs.org/v2/guide/unit-testing.html
[issue-boards-service]: https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/app/assets/javascripts/boards/services/board_service.js.es6
[flux]: https://facebook.github.io/flux
[vuex-docs]: https://vuex.vuejs.org
[vuex-structure]: https://vuex.vuejs.org/en/structure.html
[vuex-mutations]: https://vuex.vuejs.org/en/mutations.html
[vuex-testing]: https://vuex.vuejs.org/en/testing.html
[axios]: https://github.com/axios/axios
[axios-interceptors]: https://github.com/axios/axios#interceptors
# Vuex
To manage the state of an application you should use [Vuex][vuex-docs].
_Note:_ All of the below is explained in more detail in the official [Vuex documentation][vuex-docs].
## Separation of concerns
Vuex is composed of State, Getters, Mutations, Actions and Modules.
When a user clicks on an action, we need to `dispatch` it. This action will `commit` a mutation that will change the state.
_Note:_ The action itself will not update the state, only a mutation should update the state.
## File structure
When using Vuex at GitLab, separate this concerns into different files to improve readability:
```
└── store
├── index.js # where we assemble modules and export the store
├── actions.js # actions
├── mutations.js # mutations
├── getters.js # getters
├── state.js # state
└── mutation_types.js # mutation types
```
The following example shows an application that lists and adds users to the state.
(For a more complex example implementation take a look at the security applications store in [here](https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ee/tree/master/ee/app/assets/javascripts/vue_shared/security_reports/store))
### `index.js`
This is the entry point for our store. You can use the following as a guide:
```javascript
import Vue from 'vue';
import Vuex from 'vuex';
import * as actions from './actions';
import * as getters from './getters';
import mutations from './mutations';
import state from './state';
Vue.use(Vuex);
export default new Vuex.Store({
actions,
getters,
mutations,
state,
});
```
### `state.js`
The first thing you should do before writing any code is to design the state.
Often we need to provide data from haml to our Vue application. Let's store it in the state for better access.
```javascript
export default {
endpoint: null,
isLoading: false,
error: null,
isAddingUser: false,
errorAddingUser: false,
users: [],
};
```
#### Access `state` properties
You can use `mapState` to access state properties in the components.
### `actions.js`
An action is a playload of information to send data from our application to our store.
An action is usually composed by a `type` and a `payload` and they describe what happened.
Enforcing that every change is described as an action lets us have a clear understanting of what is going on in the app.
In this file, we will write the actions that will call the respective mutations:
```javascript
import * as types from './mutation_types';
import axios from '~/lib/utils/axios-utils';
import createFlash from '~/flash';
export const requestUsers = ({ commit }) => commit(types.REQUEST_USERS);
export const receiveUsersSuccess = ({ commit }, data) => commit(types.RECEIVE_USERS_SUCCESS, data);
export const receiveUsersError = ({ commit }, error) => commit(types.REQUEST_USERS_ERROR, error);
export const fetchUsers = ({ state, dispatch }) => {
dispatch('requestUsers');
axios.get(state.endoint)
.then(({ data }) => dispatch('receiveUsersSuccess', data))
.catch((error) => {
dispatch('receiveUsersError', error)
createFlash('There was an error')
});
}
export const requestAddUser = ({ commit }) => commit(types.REQUEST_ADD_USER);
export const receiveAddUserSuccess = ({ commit }, data) => commit(types.RECEIVE_ADD_USER_SUCCESS, data);
export const receiveAddUserError = ({ commit }, error) => commit(types.REQUEST_ADD_USER_ERROR, error);
export const addUser = ({ state, dispatch }, user) => {
dispatch('requestAddUser');
axios.post(state.endoint, user)
.then(({ data }) => dispatch('receiveAddUserSuccess', data))
.catch((error) => dispatch('receiveAddUserError', error));
}
```
#### Actions Pattern: `request` and `receive` namespaces
When a request is made we often want to show a loading state to the user.
Instead of creating an action to toggle the loading state and dispatch it in the component,
create:
1. An action `requestSomething`, to toggle the loading state
1. An action `receiveSomethingSuccess`, to handle the success callback
1. An action `receiveSomethingError`, to handle the error callback
1. An action `fetchSomething` to make the request.
1. In case your application does more than a `GET` request you can use these as examples:
1. `PUT`: `createSomething`
2. `POST`: `updateSomething`
3. `DELETE`: `deleteSomething`
The component MUST only dispatch the `fetchNamespace` action. Actions namespaced with `request` or `receive` should not be called from the component
The `fetch` action will be responsible to dispatch `requestNamespace`, `receiveNamespaceSuccess` and `receiveNamespaceError`
By following this pattern we guarantee:
1. All aplications follow the same pattern, making it easier for anyone to maintain the code
1. All data in the application follows the same lifecycle pattern
1. Actions are contained and human friendly
1. Unit tests are easier
1. Actions are simple and straightforward
#### Dispatching actions
To dispatch an action from a component, use the `mapActions` helper:
```javascript
import { mapActions } from 'vuex';
{
methods: {
...mapActions([
'addUser',
]),
onClickUser(user) {
this.addUser(user);
},
},
};
```
#### `mutations.js`
The mutations specify how the application state changes in response to actions sent to the store.
The only way to change state in a Vuex store should be by committing a mutation.
**It's a good idea to think of the state before writing any code.**
Remember that actions only describe that something happened, they don't describe how the application state changes.
**Never commit a mutation directly from a component**
```javascript
import * as types from './mutation_types';
export default {
[types.REQUEST_USERS](state) {
state.isLoading = true;
},
[types.RECEIVE_USERS_SUCCESS](state, data) {
// Do any needed data transformation to the received payload here
state.users = data;
state.isLoading = false;
},
[types.REQUEST_USERS_ERROR](state, error) {
state.isLoading = false;
},
[types.REQUEST_ADD_USER](state, user) {
state.isAddingUser = true;
},
[types.RECEIVE_ADD_USER_SUCCESS](state, user) {
state.isAddingUser = false;
state.users.push(user);
},
[types.REQUEST_ADD_USER_ERROR](state, error) {
state.isAddingUser = true;
state.errorAddingUser = error;
},
};
```
#### `getters.js`
Sometimes we may need to get derived state based on store state, like filtering for a specific prop.
Using a getter will also cache the result based on dependencies due to [how computed props work](https://vuejs.org/v2/guide/computed.html#Computed-Caching-vs-Methods)
This can be done through the `getters`:
```javascript
// get all the users with pets
export const getUsersWithPets = (state, getters) => {
return state.users.filter(user => user.pet !== undefined);
};
```
To access a getter from a component, use the `mapGetters` helper:
```javascript
import { mapGetters } from 'vuex';
{
computed: {
...mapGetters([
'getUsersWithPets',
]),
},
};
```
#### `mutations_types.js`
From [vuex mutations docs][vuex-mutations]:
> It is a commonly seen pattern to use constants for mutation types in various Flux implementations. This allows the code to take advantage of tooling like linters, and putting all constants in a single file allows your collaborators to get an at-a-glance view of what mutations are possible in the entire application.
```javascript
export const ADD_USER = 'ADD_USER';
```
### How to include the store in your application
The store should be included in the main component of your application:
```javascript
// app.vue
import store from 'store'; // it will include the index.js file
export default {
name: 'application',
store,
...
};
```
### Communicating with the Store
```javascript
<script>
import { mapActions, mapState, mapGetters } from 'vuex';
import store from './store';
export default {
store,
computed: {
...mapGetters([
'getUsersWithPets'
]),
...mapState([
'isLoading',
'users',
'error',
]),
},
methods: {
...mapActions([
'fetchUsers',
'addUser',
]),
onClickAddUser(data) {
this.addUser(data);
}
},
created() {
this.fetchUsers()
}
}
</script>
<template>
<ul>
<li v-if="isLoading">
Loading...
</li>
<li v-else-if="error">
{{ error }}
</li>