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isaafp
afp2019
Commits
f34e6fe900de
Commit
d80932bc
authored
Apr 28, 2016
by
nipkow
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New entry No_FTL_observers
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metadata/metadata
metadata/metadata
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metadata/topics
metadata/topics
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thys/No_FTL_observers/Axioms.thy
thys/No_FTL_observers/Axioms.thy
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thys/No_FTL_observers/ROOT
thys/No_FTL_observers/ROOT
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thys/No_FTL_observers/SomeFunc.thy
thys/No_FTL_observers/SomeFunc.thy
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thys/No_FTL_observers/SpaceTime.thy
thys/No_FTL_observers/SpaceTime.thy
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thys/No_FTL_observers/SpecRel.thy
thys/No_FTL_observers/SpecRel.thy
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thys/No_FTL_observers/config
thys/No_FTL_observers/config
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thys/No_FTL_observers/document/root.bib
thys/No_FTL_observers/document/root.bib
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thys/No_FTL_observers/document/root.tex
thys/No_FTL_observers/document/root.tex
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thys/ROOTS
thys/ROOTS
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web/entries/No_FTL_observers.shtml
web/entries/No_FTL_observers.shtml
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web/index.shtml
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metadata/metadata
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f34e6fe9
...
...
@@ 3634,3 +3634,15 @@ abstract =
recursive fashion, following the Shannon decomposition of the argument
functions. The implementation mixes and adapts known techniques and is
built with efficiency in mind.
[No_FTL_observers]
title = No FasterThanLight Observers
author = Mike Stannett <mailto:m.stannett@sheffield.ac.uk>, István Németi <http://www.renyi.hu/~nemeti/>
date = 20160428
topic = Mathematics/Physics
abstract =
We provide a formal proof within First Order Relativity Theory that no
observer can travel faster than the speed of light. Originally
reported in Stannett & Németi (2014) "
Using
Isabelle
/
HOL
to
verify
first

order
relativity
theory
", Journal of Automated Reasoning 52(4),
pp. 361378.
metadata/topics
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f34e6fe9
...
...
@@ 33,5 +33,6 @@ Mathematics
Graph Theory
Combinatorics
Category Theory
Physics
Misc
Tools
thys/No_FTL_observers/Axioms.thy
0 → 100755
View file @
f34e6fe9
(*
Author: Mike Stannett
Date: 22 October 2012
m.stannett@sheffield.ac.uk
Updated 28 April 2016 to run under Isabelle2016.
*)
theory Axioms
imports SpaceTime SomeFunc
begin
record Body =
Ph :: "bool"
IOb :: "bool"
class WorldView = SpaceTime +
fixes
(* Worldview relation *)
W :: "Body \<Rightarrow> Body \<Rightarrow> 'a Point \<Rightarrow> bool" ("_ sees _ at _")
and
(* Worldview transformation *)
wvt :: "Body \<Rightarrow> Body \<Rightarrow> 'a Point \<Rightarrow> 'a Point"
assumes
AxWVT: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> (W k b x \<longleftrightarrow> W m b (wvt m k x))"
and
AxWVTSym: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> (y = wvt k m x \<longleftrightarrow> x = wvt m k y)"
begin
end
(* THE BASIC AXIOMS *)
(* ================ *)
class AxiomPreds = WorldView
begin
fun sqrtTest :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool" where
"sqrtTest x r = ((r \<ge> 0) \<and> (r*r = x))"
fun cTest :: "Body \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool" where
"cTest m v = ( (v > 0) \<and> ( \<forall>x y . (
(\<exists>p. (Ph p \<and> W m p x \<and> W m p y)) \<longleftrightarrow> (space2 x y = (v * v)*(time2 x y))
)))"
end
(*
AxEuclidean
Quantities form a Euclidean field, ie positive quantities have
square roots. We introduce a function, sqrt, that determines them.
*)
class AxEuclidean = AxiomPreds + Quantities +
assumes
AxEuclidean: "(x \<ge> Groups.zero_class.zero) \<Longrightarrow> (\<exists>r. sqrtTest x r)"
begin
abbreviation sqrt :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a" where
"sqrt \<equiv> someFunc sqrtTest"
lemma lemSqrt:
assumes "x \<ge> 0"
and "r = sqrt x"
shows "r \<ge> 0 \<and> r*r = x"
proof 
have rootExists: "(\<exists>r. sqrtTest x r)" by (metis AxEuclidean assms(1))
hence "sqrtTest x (sqrt x)" by (metis lemSomeFunc)
thus ?thesis using assms(2) by simp
qed
end
(*
AxLight
There is an inertial observer, according to whom, any light
signal moves with the same velocity in any direction
*)
class AxLight = WorldView +
assumes
AxLight: "\<exists>m v.( IOb m \<and> (v > (0::'a)) \<and> ( \<forall>x y.(
(\<exists>p.(Ph p \<and> W m p x \<and> W m p y)) \<longleftrightarrow> (space2 x y = (v * v)*time2 x y)
)))"
begin
end
(*
AxPh
For any inertial observer, the speed of light is the same in every
direction everywhere, and it is finite. Furthermore, it is possible
to send out a light signal in any direction.
*)
class AxPh = WorldView + AxiomPreds +
assumes
AxPh: "IOb m \<Longrightarrow> (\<exists>v. cTest m v)"
begin
abbreviation c :: "Body \<Rightarrow> 'a" where
"c \<equiv> someFunc cTest"
fun lightcone :: "Body \<Rightarrow> 'a Point \<Rightarrow> 'a Cone" where
"lightcone m v = mkCone v (c m)"
lemma lemCProps:
assumes "IOb m"
and "v = c m"
shows "(v > 0) \<and> (\<forall>x y.((\<exists>p. (Ph p \<and> W m p x \<and> W m p y))
\<longleftrightarrow> ( space2 x y = (c m * c m)*time2 x y )))"
proof 
have vExists: "(\<exists>v. cTest m v)" by (metis AxPh assms(1))
hence "cTest m (c m)" by (metis lemSomeFunc)
thus ?thesis using assms(2) by simp
qed
lemma lemCCone:
assumes "IOb m"
and "onCone y (lightcone m x)"
shows "\<exists>p. (Ph p \<and> W m p x \<and> W m p y)"
proof 
have "(\<exists>p.(Ph p \<and> W m p x \<and> W m p y))
\<longleftrightarrow> ( space2 x y = (c m * c m)*time2 x y )"
by (smt assms(1) lemCProps)
hence ph_exists: "(space2 x y = (c m * c m)*time2 x y) \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>p.(Ph p \<and> W m p x \<and> W m p y))"
by metis
def lcmx \<equiv> "lightcone m x"
have lcmx_vertex: "vertex lcmx = x" by (simp add: lcmx_def)
have lcmx_slope: "slope lcmx = c m" by (simp add: lcmx_def)
have "onCone y lcmx \<longrightarrow> (space2 x y = (c m * c m)*time2 x y)"
by (metis lcmx_vertex lcmx_slope onCone.simps)
hence "space2 x y = (c m * c m)*time2 x y" by (metis lcmx_def assms(2))
thus ?thesis by (metis ph_exists)
qed
lemma lemCPos:
assumes "IOb m"
shows "c m > 0"
by (metis assms(1) lemCProps)
lemma lemCPhoton:
assumes "IOb m"
shows "\<forall>x y. (\<exists>p. (Ph p \<and> W m p x \<and> W m p y)) \<longleftrightarrow> (space2 x y = (c m * c m)*(time2 x y))"
by (metis assms(1) lemCProps)
end
(*
AxEv
Inertial observers see the same events (meetings of bodies).
This also enables us to discuss the worldview transformation.
*)
class AxEv = WorldView +
assumes
AxEv: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> (\<exists>y. (\<forall>b. (W m b x \<longleftrightarrow> W k b y)))"
begin
end
(*
Inertial observers can move with any speed slower than that of light
*)
class AxThExp = WorldView + AxPh +
assumes
AxThExp: "IOb m \<Longrightarrow> (\<forall>x y .(
(\<exists>k.(IOb k \<and> W m k x \<and> W m k y)) \<longleftrightarrow> (space2 x y < (c m * c m) * time2 x y)
))"
begin
end
(*
Every inertial observer is stationary according to himself
*)
class AxSelf = WorldView +
assumes
AxSelf: "IOb m \<Longrightarrow> (W m m x) \<longrightarrow> (onAxisT x)"
begin
end
(*
All inertial observers agree that the speed of light is 1
*)
class AxC = WorldView + AxPh +
assumes
AxC: "IOb m \<Longrightarrow> c m = 1"
begin
end
(*
Inertial observers agree as to the spatial distance between two
events if these two events are simultaneous for both of them.
*)
class AxSym = WorldView +
assumes
AxSym: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
(W m e x \<and> W m f y \<and> W k e x'\<and> W k f y' \<and>
tval x = tval y \<and> tval x' = tval y' )
\<longrightarrow> (space2 x y = space2 x' y')"
begin
end
(*
AxLines
All observers agree about lines
*)
class AxLines = WorldView +
assumes
AxLines: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k; collinear x p q \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
collinear (wvt k m x) (wvt k m p) (wvt k m q)"
begin
end
(*
AxPlanes
All observers agree about planes
*)
class AxPlanes = WorldView +
assumes
AxPlanes: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
(coplanar e x y z \<longrightarrow> coplanar (wvt k m e) (wvt k m x) (wvt k m y) (wvt k m z))"
begin
end
(*
AxCones
All observers agree about lightcones
*)
class AxCones = WorldView + AxPh +
assumes
AxCones: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
( onCone x (lightCone m v) \<longrightarrow> onCone (wvt k m x) (lightcone k (wvt k m v)))"
begin
end
(*
All inertial observers see time travelling in the same direction. That
is, if m thinks that k reached y after he reached x, then
k should also think that he reached y after he reached x.
*)
class AxTime = WorldView +
assumes
AxTime: "\<lbrakk> IOb m; IOb k \<rbrakk>
\<Longrightarrow>( x \<lesssim> y \<longrightarrow> wvt k m x \<lesssim> wvt k m y )"
begin
end
end
\ No newline at end of file
thys/No_FTL_observers/ROOT
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chapter AFP
session No_FTL_observers (AFP) = HOL +
options [timeout = 600]
theories
SpecRel
document_files
"root.tex"
"root.bib"
thys/No_FTL_observers/SomeFunc.thy
0 → 100755
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(*
Author: Mike Stannett
Date: 27 April 2016
m.stannett@sheffield.ac.uk
*)
theory SomeFunc
imports Main
begin
fun someFunc :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b" where
"someFunc P x = (SOME y. (P x y))"
lemma lemSomeFunc:
assumes "\<exists>y . P x y"
and "f = someFunc P"
shows "P x (f x)"
proof 
have "f x = (SOME y. (P x y))"
using assms(2) by simp
thus ?thesis using assms(1)
by (simp add: someI_ex)
qed
end
\ No newline at end of file
thys/No_FTL_observers/SpaceTime.thy
0 → 100755
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This diff is collapsed.
Click to expand it.
thys/No_FTL_observers/SpecRel.thy
0 → 100755
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(*
Author: Mike Stannett
Date: 22 October 2012
m.stannett@sheffield.ac.uk
Updated 28 April 2016 to run under Isabelle2016.
*)
theory SpecRel
imports Axioms
begin
class SpecRel = WorldView + AxPh + AxEv + AxSelf + AxSym
(*
The following proof assumes that the quantity field is Euclidean. It
may be possible to produce a proof without this constraint.
*)
+ AxEuclidean
(*
We also assume for now that lines, planes and lightcones are
preserved by the worldview transformation.
*)
+ AxLines + AxPlanes + AxCones
begin
(* *******************************************************************
* *
* THEOREM: *
* No inertial observer can move faster than light. *
* *
** **************************************************************** *)
lemma lemZEG:
shows "z  e = g  e + (z  g)"
proof 
have "g  e + (z  g) = (g  e + z)  g" by (rule add_diff_eq)
also have "(g  e + z)  g = (e + z)"
by (metis local.diff_add_cancel
local.ring_normalization_rules(2)
local.semiring_normalization_rules(24)
local.semiring_normalization_rules(25))
thus ?thesis
by (simp add: calculation)
qed
lemma noFTLObserver:
assumes iobm: "IOb m"
and iobk: "IOb k"
and mke: "m sees k at e"
and mkf: "m sees k at f"
and enotf: "e \<noteq> f"
shows "space2 e f \<le> (c m * c m) * time2 e f"
proof  (* by reductio *)
(* Step 1: Suppose k is going FTL from m's viewpoint. *)
{
assume converse: "space2 e f > (c m * c m) * time2 e f"
(* Step 2: Consider the mlightcone at e *)
def eCone \<equiv> "mkCone e (c m)"
have e_on_econe: "onCone e eCone" by (simp add: eCone_def)
(* Step 3: There is a tangent plane for eCone containing both e and f,
defined using some point g on the tangent line *)
have e_is_vertex: "e = vertex eCone" by (simp add: eCone_def)
have cm_is_slope: "c m = slope eCone" by (simp add: eCone_def)
hence outside: "outsideCone f eCone"
by (metis (lifting) e_is_vertex cm_is_slope converse outsideCone.simps)
have "outsideCone f eCone
\<longrightarrow> (\<exists>x.(onCone x eCone \<and> x \<noteq> vertex eCone \<and> inPlane f (tangentPlane x eCone)))"
by (rule AxParallelConesE)
hence tplane_exists: "\<exists>x.(onCone x eCone \<and> x \<noteq> vertex eCone \<and> inPlane f (tangentPlane x eCone))"
by (metis outside)
then obtain g where g_props: "(onCone g eCone \<and> g \<noteq> vertex eCone \<and> inPlane f (tangentPlane g eCone))"
by auto
have g_on_eCone: "onCone g eCone" by (metis g_props)
have g_not_vertex: "g \<noteq> vertex eCone" by (metis g_props)
def tplane \<equiv> "tangentPlane g eCone"
have e_in_tplane: "inPlane e tplane" by (metis AxTangentVertex e_is_vertex tplane_def)
have f_in_tplane: "inPlane f tplane" by (metis g_props tplane_def)
have g_in_tplane: "inPlane g tplane" by (metis lemPlaneContainsBasePoint tplane_def AxTangentBase)
(* We'll need to show that efg aren't collinear *)
have "(onCone g eCone) \<longrightarrow>
((inPlane f (tangentPlane g eCone) \<and> onCone f eCone)
\<longleftrightarrow> collinear (vertex eCone) g f)"
by (metis AxConeTangent)
hence axconetangent: "collinear e g f \<longrightarrow> onCone f eCone"
by (metis g_on_eCone e_is_vertex)
have "\<not>(onCone f eCone)" by (metis outside lemOutsideNotOnCone)
hence g_not_collinear: "\<not> (collinear e g f)"
by (metis axconetangent)
(* Step 4: k considers wvte and wvtf to be distinct points on the taxis, and wvtg is off
k's taxis. *)
def wvte \<equiv> "wvt k m e"
def wvtf \<equiv> "wvt k m f"
def wvtg \<equiv> "wvt k m g"
have "W k k wvte" by (metis wvte_def AxWVT mke iobm iobk)
hence wvte_onAxis: "onAxisT wvte" by (metis AxSelf iobk)
have "W k k wvtf" by (metis wvtf_def AxWVT mkf iobm iobk)
hence wvtf_onAxis: "onAxisT wvtf" by (metis AxSelf iobk)
have wvte_inv: "e = wvt m k wvte" by (metis AxWVTSym iobk iobm wvte_def)
have wvtf_inv: "f = wvt m k wvtf" by (metis AxWVTSym iobk iobm wvtf_def)
have wvtg_inv: "g = wvt m k wvtg" by (metis AxWVTSym iobk iobm wvtg_def)
have e_not_g: "e \<noteq> g" by (metis e_is_vertex g_not_vertex)
have f_not_g: "f \<noteq> g" by (metis outside lemOutsideNotOnCone g_on_eCone)
have wvt_e_not_f: "wvte \<noteq> wvtf" by (metis wvte_inv wvtf_inv enotf)
have wvt_f_not_g: "wvtf \<noteq> wvtg" by (metis wvtf_inv wvtg_inv f_not_g)
have wvt_g_not_e: "wvtg \<noteq> wvte" by (metis wvtg_inv wvte_inv e_not_g)
have if_g_onAxis: "onAxisT wvtg \<longrightarrow> collinear wvte wvtg wvtf"
by (metis lemAxisIsLine wvte_onAxis wvtf_onAxis wvt_e_not_f wvt_f_not_g wvt_g_not_e)
have "collinear wvte wvtg wvtf \<longrightarrow> collinear e g f"
by (metis AxLines iobm iobk wvte_inv wvtf_inv wvtg_inv)
hence "onAxisT wvtg \<longrightarrow> collinear e g f" by (metis if_g_onAxis)
hence wvtg_offAxis: "\<not> (onAxisT wvtg)" by (metis g_not_collinear)
(* Step 5: There is a point z with various contradictory properties. *)
have "\<forall>s.(\<exists>p.( collinear wvte wvtg p \<and> (space2 p wvtf = (s*s)*time2 p wvtf)))"
by (metis AxSlopedLineInVerticalPlane wvte_onAxis wvtf_onAxis wvtg_offAxis wvt_e_not_f)
hence exists_wvtz: "\<exists>p.( collinear wvte wvtg p \<and> (space2 p wvtf = (c k * c k)*time2 p wvtf))"
by metis
then obtain wvtz where
wvtz_props: "collinear wvte wvtg wvtz \<and> (space2 wvtz wvtf = (c k * c k)*time2 wvtz wvtf)" by auto
hence wvtf_speed: "space2 wvtz wvtf = (c k * c k)*time2 wvtz wvtf" by metis
def z \<equiv> "wvt m k wvtz"
def wvtzCone \<equiv> "lightcone k wvtz"
have wvtz_is_vertex: "wvtz = vertex wvtzCone" by (simp add: wvtzCone_def)
have ck_is_slope: "c k = slope wvtzCone" by (simp add: wvtzCone_def)
hence "space2 (vertex wvtzCone) wvtf = ((slope wvtzCone) *(slope wvtzCone))*time2 (vertex wvtzCone) wvtf"
by (metis wvtf_speed wvtz_is_vertex ck_is_slope)
hence "onCone wvtf wvtzCone" by (metis onCone.simps)
hence wvtf_on_wvtzCone: "onCone (wvt m k wvtf) (lightcone m z)"
by (metis iobm iobk AxCones wvtzCone_def z_def)
(* f is on the lightcone at z *)
def zCone \<equiv> "lightcone m z"
have z_is_vertex: "z = vertex zCone" by (simp add: zCone_def)
have cm_is_zSlope: "c m = slope zCone" by (simp add: zCone_def)
have f_on_zCone: "onCone f zCone" by (metis wvtf_inv wvtf_on_wvtzCone zCone_def)
(* whence z is on the lightcone at f *)
hence "space2 (vertex zCone) f = (slope zCone * slope zCone)*time2 (vertex zCone) f"
by (simp add: zCone_def)
hence "space2 z f = (c m * c m)*time2 z f" by (metis z_is_vertex cm_is_zSlope)
hence fz_speed: "space2 f z = (c m * c m)*time2 f z" by (metis lemSpace2Sym lemTime2Sym)
def fCone \<equiv> "lightcone m f"
have f_is_fVertex: "f = vertex fCone" by (simp add: fCone_def)
have cm_is_fSlope: "c m = slope fCone" by (simp add: fCone_def)
hence "space2 (vertex fCone) z = ((slope fCone) *(slope fCone))*time2 (vertex fCone) z"
by (metis fz_speed f_is_fVertex cm_is_fSlope)
hence z_on_fCone: "onCone z fCone" by (metis onCone.simps)
(* z is also on the lightcone at e, as well as in the tangent plane at g *)
have "collinear wvte wvtg wvtz" by (metis wvtz_props)
hence egz_collinear: "collinear e g z" by (metis wvte_inv wvtg_inv z_def AxLines iobm iobk)
hence z_geometry: "(inPlane z (tangentPlane g eCone) \<and> onCone z eCone)"
by (metis AxConeTangent e_is_vertex g_on_eCone)
have z_on_eCone: "onCone z eCone" by (metis z_geometry)
have z_in_tplane: "inPlane z tplane" by (metis z_geometry tplane_def)
hence z_not_f: "z \<noteq> f" by (metis z_on_eCone outside lemOutsideNotOnCone)
hence z_not_fVertex: "z \<noteq> vertex fCone" by (simp add: fCone_def z_not_f)
{
assume assm: "z = e"
have "space2 f e = (c m * c m)*time2 f e \<and> space2 f e = space2 e f \<and> time2 f e = time2 e f"
by (metis lemSpace2Sym lemTime2Sym fz_speed assm)
hence "space2 e f = (c m * c m)*time2 e f" by metis
hence "False" by (metis less_irrefl converse)
}
from this have z_not_e: "z \<noteq> e" by blast
(* but the lines ez and fz must be parallel *)
def lineA \<equiv> "lineJoining e z"
def lineB \<equiv> "lineJoining f z"
{
assume assm: "direction lineA = vecZero"
have lemnullline: "(direction lineA = vecZero \<and> inLine z lineA) \<longrightarrow> z = basepoint lineA"
by (metis lemNullLine)
have "inLine z lineA" by (metis lineA_def lemLineContainsEndpoint)
hence z_is_bp: "z = basepoint lineA" by (metis lemnullline assm)
have "basepoint lineA = e" by (simp add: lineA_def)
hence "False" by (metis z_is_bp z_not_e)
}
from this have ez_not_null: "direction lineA \<noteq> vecZero" by blast
{
assume assm: "direction lineB = vecZero"
have lemnullline: "(direction lineB = vecZero \<and> inLine z lineB) \<longrightarrow> z = basepoint lineB"
by (metis lemNullLine)
have "inLine z lineB" by (metis lineB_def lemLineContainsEndpoint)
hence z_is_bp: "z = basepoint lineB" by (metis lemnullline assm)
have "basepoint lineB = f" by (simp add: lineB_def)
hence "False" by (metis z_is_bp z_not_f)
}
from this have fz_not_null: "direction lineB \<noteq> vecZero" by blast
{
have "samePlane tplane (tangentPlane z fCone)
\<and> ((lineJoining e g) \<parallel> (lineJoining f z))"
by (metis AxParallelCones tplane_def
g_on_eCone g_not_vertex z_on_fCone z_not_fVertex z_in_tplane
e_is_vertex f_is_fVertex)
hence eg_par_fz: "(lineJoining e g) \<parallel> (lineJoining f z)" by metis
{
assume case1: "direction (lineJoining e g) = vecZero"
have "direction (lineJoining e g) = from e to g" by simp
hence "from e to g = vecZero" by (metis case1)
hence "e = g" by (simp)
hence "False" by (metis e_not_g)
}
from this have eg_not_null: "\<not>(direction (lineJoining e g) = vecZero)" by blast
then obtain a where a_props: "a \<noteq> 0 \<and> direction (lineJoining f z) = a**direction (lineJoining e g)"
by (metis fz_not_null eg_not_null eg_par_fz parallel.simps lineB_def)
hence f_to_z: "from f to z = a**(from e to g)" by simp
have a_nonzero: "a \<noteq> 0" by (metis a_props)
have eg_dir: "from e to g = direction (lineJoining e g)" by simp
have gz_dir: "from g to z = direction (lineJoining g z)" by simp
have egz: "z = g \<leadsto> (from g to z)" by (metis lemLineEndpoint)
hence "collinear e g (g \<leadsto> (from g to z))" by (metis egz_collinear)
then obtain b where e_to_g: "from e to g = (b)**(from g to z)"
by (metis lemDirectionCollinear)
{
assume assm: "b = 0"
have "from e to g = (b)**(from g to z)" by (metis e_to_g)
hence "from e to g = vecZero" by (simp add: assm)
hence "direction (lineJoining e g) = vecZero" by (simp)
hence "False" by (metis eg_not_null lineA_def)
}
from this have b_nonzero: "b \<noteq> 0" by blast
def binv \<equiv> "inverse (b)"
def factor \<equiv> "1+binv"
have binv_nonzero: "binv \<noteq> 0" by (metis b_nonzero add.comm_neutral binv_def nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero right_minus)
have "from e to g = (b)**(from g to z)" by (metis e_to_g)
hence g_to_z: "(from g to z) = binv**(from e to g)"
by (metis b_nonzero lemScaleInverse binv_def)
have "from e to z = from e to g \<oplus> from g to z"
by (simp add: lemZEG)
hence "from e to z = (from e to g) \<oplus> binv**(from e to g)" by (metis g_to_z)
hence e_to_z: "from e to z = factor**(from e to g)" by (metis lemAddOverScale lemScale1 factor_def)
have ez_dir: "direction (lineJoining e z) = from e to z" by simp
have eg_dir: "direction (lineJoining e g) = from e to g" by simp
{
assume assm: "factor = 0"
have "from e to z = factor**(from e to g)" by (metis e_to_z)
hence "from e to z = vecZero" by (simp add: assm)
hence "direction (lineJoining e z) = vecZero" by (simp)
hence "False" by (metis ez_not_null lineA_def)
}
from this have factor_nonzero: "factor \<noteq> 0" by blast
have "direction (lineJoining e z) = factor**(direction (lineJoining e g))"
by (metis e_to_z ez_dir eg_dir)
hence "(lineJoining e g) \<parallel> (lineJoining e z)" by (metis parallel.simps factor_nonzero)
hence "(lineJoining e z) \<parallel> (lineJoining e g)" by (metis lemParallelSym)